Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 8th International Conference on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases Cape Town, South Africa.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Sanjib Bhakta

Birkbeck, University of London and UCL, UK

Keynote: Repurposing common Non-Steroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs(NSAIDs) could potentially reverse intrinsic drug

Time : 10:00-11:00

Conference Series Infectious Conference 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Sanjib Bhakta photo

Sanjib Bhakta is a Reader (Associate Professor) in Molecular Microbiology and Biochemistry, Strategic Dean (International and Partnership) and Programme Director of MRes Global Infectious Diseases at the Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck, University of London and UCL .His continued research interest in infectious bacterial diseases (funded by Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council, UK and EU) is focussed on developing novel therapeutics as well as repurposing existing drugs to tackle antibiotic resistance and persistence in tuberculosis (TB), a global health emergency. He has published more than 100 original research articles for a number of internationally acclaimed journals including J. Exp. Med., JBC, Tuberculosis, Biochem. J., J. Antimicrob. Chemotherapy, FEBS J, Molecular Microbiology, British Medical Journal, PLOS, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry and Nature Sci Report.


The rise of antimicrobial resistance is leading to ever-more untreatable illness. Intracellularly surviving bacterial pathogens have endogenous machinery to evade host defenses as well as antibiotic treatment. Drug efflux and formation of biofilms are the two key fundamental mechanisms of intrinsic resistance which render many antibiotics ineffective against them. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has unique multi-drug transporter protein complexes that allow the pathogen to take up nutrients for survival, while allowing it to extrude deleterious ones so as the signaling molecules for quorum-sensing leading to biofilm formation. Our work has shown that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have anti-bacterial action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent NSAID so far, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, inhibited whole-cell efflux pumps activity at par with/better than potent efflux pump inhibitors such as verapamil and chlorpromazine. In addition, the NSAID inhibited mycobacterial biofilm formation significantly. Analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances of treated biofilm showed macromolecular alterations compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis revealed modulation of key metabolic pathways in NSAID-treated M. tuberculosis revealing novel endogenous targets of the drug. The over-the-counter immunomodulatory drug’s new antibiotic action has paved an alternative route for tackling antimicrobial resistance in TB.

  • Pediatric, Bacterial and Infectious Diseases | Vector Borne Diseases | Virology and Infectious Diseaes | Pediatric Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Inflammatory and Neurological Infectious Diseases | Neonatal and Congenital Infections
Location: Conference Hall


Doshen Naidoo

Private Mother and Child Hospital, South Africa

Session Introduction

Martin R Evans

American Society for Microbiology, USA

Title: Proficiency testing/external quality assurance in the microbiology laboratory

Dr Evans is a clinical laboratory director with a PhD in medical microbiology and immunology. He currently serves as a senior laboratory and informatics consultant to the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) which is the parent organization of all state and local public health laboratories in the United States. During this time, he has been involved with APHL/CDC projects in Haiti, Kenya, Indonesia, Namibia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. As a microbiology and infectious disease consultant for the American Society for Microbiology, he has participated in CDC antimicrobial resistance surveillance and other programs in Ethiopia, Kenya and Bangladesh. Dr Evans serves on the New York State Board for Clinical Laboratory Technology and was the first chairman of the state board established in 2006. He is the recipient of APHL's Thomas E Maxson Education, Training and Workforce Development Award for significant contributions to Public Health Laboratory Practice. In 2013, Dr Evans concluded 6 years of public health laboratory service as an Associate Director at the New York City Public Health Laboratory.Key responsibilities included Director of Technical Affairs, Acting Manager of the Microbiology Section & LIMS Project Leader. Previously, Dr Evans spent 14 years in the private sector as a clinical laboratory director at Quest Diagnostics and SmithKline Beecham Clinical Laboratories. Prior to his work in the diagnostic laboratory, he was in academia including positions at Temple University and the University of Zimbabwe Faculty of Medicine. He is also a New York State licensed medical technologist.


In many countries, the external quality assurance (EQA)/ Proficiency testing (PT) scheme for priority GHSA pathogens still needs to be strengthened, particularly concerning Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) surveillance. EQA programs are usually organized by the national professional scientific society, professionals on behalf of government, or by commercial companies. Prior to the commencement of a program, several policy decisions need to be agreed upon such as participation being required or recommended. Another consideration is the organizational structure behind the coordination of the EQA scheme. This includes operating costs for the provision of the material, mailing expenses and clerical and professional time for programmatic administration. Other issues also need agreement such as the frequency of specimen distribution and the degree of interaction between the organizers and participants to ensure an understanding of the scheme’s objectives and report the distribution of interlaboratory comparisons. For EQA programs to be successful in providing independent, objective data and to act as an educational stimulus for improvement, participants must have confidence in the scientific validity of the scheme design as well as the reliability of its operations. One of the issues around the current implementation of AMR surveillance programs is the misidentification of bacterial isolates and the inaccurate performance of Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) which must be in place before the country starts reporting AMR data. A national AMR program is expected to organize and conduct EQA for all microbiology laboratories reporting data to WHO covering both quality-assured, standardized identification of bacteria
and AST in patient management. Proficiency testing is essential for conducting high-quality testing, verification of test results and effective antibiotic stewardship. Establishing a national PT program serves as a quality improvement activity and is vital for improving the laboratory’s role in early disease detection, rapid public health response and achieving superior preventive care.


Ana is the CEO / Scientific Director of Limace Biotecnologia, the first Brazilian company to develop pharmaceuticals and cosmetics from natural molluscan products. PhD in Biotechnology by the Institute of Biomedical Sciences of the University of São Paulo and master in Sciences by the Coordination of Disease Control (SES / SP). Post-doctoral study at the Butantan Institute, combining the study of molluscs with bioprospecting of antiviral compounds. Has experience in the field of macromolecule chemistry and bioprospecting active compounds from molluscs. He also works in the areas of zoology, microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, virology and molecular phylogeny.


Terrestrial gastropods exude mucus by the body surface, when traveling, to protect its body from mechanical injury, desiccation or contact with harmful substances. Mucus of mollusks has been studied as a source of new natural compounds with diverse biological activities as its capability of inducing proliferation and remodelling tissue and their antiviral capacity. Fungus and viruses are related to a range of infectious diseases in humans and animals. Viruses cause worldwide outbreaks and pandemics in humans and animals every year with considerable morbidity and mortality. The molecular diversity of secondary metabolites extracted from mollusks is a good alternative for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds with unique structures and diverse biological activities. Phyllocaulis boraceiensis is a hermaphroditic slug that exudes mucus, in which was detected some molecules that exhibited potent antiviral activity against Measles, Influenza, Herpes, Rubella and Zika virus. In order to identify, isolate, purify and sequence molecules present in the mucus of the land slug P. boraceiensis with antiviral action "in vitro" were used fragmentation by chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to determine the active molecules and assay of biological activity, qPCR and Immunofluorescence labelling to determine the biological activity. 


Sabine N'dri Vakou holds a PhD in Bioscience and is a graduate the Microbiology Laboratory in the Environment and Health Department. She has contributed to
numerous studies on bacteria responsible for skin ulcers, particularly mycobacteria. She has chosen to focus on non-ulcer mycobacteria which could have a role in maintaining the endemicity of Buruli ulcer in Côte d'Ivoire.


Introduction: The natural environment is considered a potential source of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). They are responsible for lung and skin infections. In Cote d’Ivoire, the only recognized etiological agent responsible for ulcerations is M. ulcerans. It is a real public health problem with about 2000 cases reported annually according to the WHO. This ulcerative disease is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the environment. It would act in humans under the influence of a toxin,mycolactone. However, some environmental mycobacteria could be involved in its occurrence. The lack of knowledge about the mode of transmission, the ecological niches constitute a real obstacle to the diagnosis and the establishment of an effective treatment. There is very little information on the presence of environmental mycobacteria in Cote d’Ivoire.
Place & Duration of the Study: The analysis of the samples took place in the laboratories of Institute Pasteur of Côte d’Ivoire in Abidjan City between June 2014 and December 2015. Sampling was done in some sites of Buruli Ulcer of Côte d’Ivoire.
Materials: Sites (Sokrogbo, Bodo (Tiassalé), Adiopodoumé, Adzopé, loka (Bouaké), Agboville, Aghien) were studied. The biological material consisted of water and sediment samples.
Methods: The techniques of classical bacteriology and biochemistry were used for culture and identification of species, PCR diagnostics using IS2404 and KR were performed on strains, MIRU/VNTR were used for the genetic analyzes.
Results: A total of 473 samples were obtained in this study. A total of 7 fast-growing species were identified. They are: M.peregrinum, M.immunogenicum, M. chelonae, M. mucogenicum, M. abscessus, M. smegmatis, Mycobacterium sp. 20% of the species of rapidly growing mycobacteria isolated were carrying the gene IS2404 found in M. ulcerans. 9.23% of the strains harbor the Ketoreductase (Kr) gene, one of mycolactone synthesis enzymes. At the level of genetic analyzes using MIRU/VNTR, MIRU 1 was the most amplified sequence and the least amplified LOCUS 6, no known profile was identified in this study.
Conclusion: This study allowed the presence of potentially pathogenic rapidly growing mycobacterial species possessing virulence genes previously attributed to M. ulcerans, responsible for Buruli Ulcer. It also confirms the role of water and sediments as a risk factor for the population vulnerable to mycobacterial diseases. This study would be the first step to understand the
origin of the different cutaneous infections encountered in Ivory Coast.

Break: 13:00-14:00

Kelvin Ngongolo is currently a PhD student, focusing on assessing the association of trypanosome infection prevalence in cattle with human activities, ecological factors and livestock movement in Maasai pastoral communities in the Maasai Steppe, Tanzania. He has extensive experience in conservation biology where his intensive concern has been looking how local communities are interacting with the biodiversity within and surrounding them. He is currently working as an Assistant Lecture at University of Dodoma.


The influence of ecological factors such as habitat and human activities on prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle is less documented. This study aimed at assessing the influence of habitat cultivation as human activities on prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle. The study took place in three village named Sukuro, Kimotorok and Oltukai. Questionnaires to pastoralists in which cattle bloods were collected were addressed. In addition, field visit was conducted to assess the habitats and agricultural activities taking place in the identified grazing areas. The shape file polygon of the grazing areas was
created through Google Earth Pro. In each polygon, proper visualization was made by zooming in and out to identify the cultivated areas and habitat types and estimate the area percentage. The overall prevalence was 13.14%. Cultivation had positive influence in prevalence of trypanosome infection (P<0.05). This is due to livestock being forced to graze in pristine areas
with intact habitat for Tsetse flies vector and wildlife which are reservoirs for trypanosome. Out of five habitat type identified only woodland, grassland and ecotone showed negative association with prevalence of trypanosome infection (P<0.05). The negative association existing between the three habitats and the prevalence of trypanosome infection is tied with the vectors existing in this area as evidenced by previous studies in an area. Control effort for trypanosome infection and their vector(Tsetse flies) should consider the existing influencing ecological and human activities.


Martin R Evans is a Clinical Laboratory Director with a PhD in Medical Microbiology and Immunology. He currently serves as a Laboratory Consultant to the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) USA and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). He was an Associate Director at the NYC Public Health Laboratory and a Clinical Laboratory Director at Quest Diagnostics and SmithKline Beecham Clinical Laboratories. He also held academic positions at Temple University and the University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of Medicine


Quality Indicators (QIs) monitor and evaluate performance throughout critical aspects of all laboratory processes. However, for many public and private laboratories in resource-challenged nations, it is observed that QIs are either not in place or minimally in place. With the implementation of Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (AMR) programs driven by WHO and CDC, AMR related measures are required. QIs data is expected to be collected, continuously monitored and evaluated. Practical and meaningful measures are needed that include both quality parameters and laboratory operational efficiency. Since most measures are not yet fully harmonized, once defined there is the opportunity to implement best practices throughout a particular country thereby providing useful comparative data. QIs are required for the ISO 15189- International standard for medical laboratories accreditation, the Quality Management System (QMS) and in keeping with microbiology Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Measures indicate how well a laboratory is performing and provide definitive data for decision making including data that can be used for the justification of additional staff or in support of funding for new equipment. It is appropriate for a national reference laboratory to take the lead in establishing standardized metrics. It is suggested to implement a comprehensive program including not only demographic indicators but also process performance indicators and resource management indicators. The establishment, monitoring, and evaluation of quality indicators are critical to the operations of a microbiology laboratory and with the current focus on AMR surveillance, essential in improving the role of the laboratory in preventive care.


Olatoye Isaac Ajadi is a Medical Doctor from Nigeria with eight years of work experience in clinical medicine both at teaching hospitals and private facilities. He had his Medical training at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital where he later served before joining the medical team at Olabisi Onabanjo Teaching Hospital.Due to his strong passion for medicine, he founded Divine Treasure private hospital. As an accolade to his academic achievements, he recently bagged a Master's degree in Health Science with a focus on preeclampsia and HIV pathogenesis at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa.


Pre-Eclampsia (PE) characterized by high blood pressure is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Angiogenic, anti-angiogenic and vasoactive factors have been shown to be linked to placental dysregulation during PE; although, it’s exact pathogenesis is still unclear. It has been proposed that infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) may reduce the risk of developing PE even though few studies have tried to study their correlation in pregnancy. Therefore, this study investigated the serum levels of endothelin-1; endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS); soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1); soluble endoglin (sEng) and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) in women with HIV associated PE. Serum mRNA expression levels of endothelin-1 and eNOS was measured using real-time PCR. The serum concentrations of sFlt-1, sEng and PlGF were quantified using ELISA kits. Results indicated an up-regulation of sFlt-1 levels in the PE groups
(HIV uninfected 4.39±1.29 ng/ml; HIV infected 5.10±1.10 ng/ml) compared to the normotensive groups (2.59±0.83; 2.20±0.85ng/ml; p≤0.05). There were no significant differences in the mean serum sEng levels across the study groups. The mean PlGF levels was higher in the HIV uninfected PE versus the infected normotensive groups (29.69±4.47 pg/ml vs. 32.86 ±6.46 pg/ml; p=0.002). Meanwhile, elevated expression level of endothelin-1 mRNA was observed in the HIV infected and uninfected PE. This study strongly supports that sFlt-1, an anti-angiogenic factor is a key role player in its pathogenesis and endothelin-1; being a vasopressor, has a substantial contribution to the raised blood pressure which is one of the characteristic features of PE. However, the findings of our study show that HIV infection has no alteration on the levels of the selected biomarkers thus may not have the effect on the incidence or disease progression of PE.

Break: 15:30-16:00

Fahad Alsufayan

National Guard Health Affairs, Saudi Arabia

Title: Infection control and prevention in NICU

Fahad Alsufayan has experience in the field of pediatrics. Currently, he is the Division Head of Pediatric Department, Consultant Neonatology and Pediatrics at
National Guard Health Affairs, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. He was the Section Head in Research Office and Physician In-Charge at Al-Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal Hospital. He was a Chief of Fellows in Neonatology Section at University of Manitoba, Canada. He was also an Associate Consultant in Al-Immam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal Hospital.


Infections contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in NICU. NICU population is vulnerable for infections because of immaturity of the immune system, need for invasive devices, delayed enteral feeding and multiple encounters with humans. Infections in NICU are classified as; congenital, perinatal, early neonatal sepsis and hospital-acquired infection. Early and
late neonatal and sepsis is preventable and reduceable provided certain measures are strictly and consistently implemented. Causative organisms of NICU infections are either related to the mother birth canal or commensal. Premature babies are in particular susceptible with higher mortality and morbidity rate comparing to term babies. Usage of antibiotics in NICU is high
and mostly for culture negative sepsis or empirical for presence of maternal or newborn risk factor.